Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial information as of September 30, 2022 and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 has been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 was derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements. The Company’s audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, including all related disclosures and the complete listing of significant accounting policies as described in Note 2 thereof, are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form
that was filed with the SEC on March 25, 2022.
In the opinion of management, the unaudited financial information as of September 30, 2022 and for three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 reflects all adjustments, which are normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present a fair statement of financial position, results of operations and cash flows. The results of operations for three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full fiscal year or any future periods.
Principles of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation
The Company has a wholly-owned subsidiary, ContraFect International Limited, in Scotland that establishes legal status for interactions with the European Economic Area. This subsidiary is dormant or is otherwise
Any inter-company accounts have been eliminated in consolidation.
Significant Risks and Uncertainties
Significant Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s operations are subject to a number of factors that can affect its operating results and financial condition. Such factors include, but are not limited to, the results of clinical testing and trial activities of the Company’s products, the Company’s ability to obtain regulatory approval to market its products, competition from products manufactured and sold or being developed by other companies, the price of, and demand for, the Company’s products, the Company’s ability to negotiate favorable licensing or other manufacturing and marketing agreements for its products, the Company’s ability to raise capital and the effects of the novel coronavirus, or
on the Company’s business, operations and financial performance and position.
The Company currently relies on a single manufacturer of drug substance for each of its product candidates and two manufacturers of drug product, one located in the United States and one in Western Europe, and there are no long-term supply agreements in place. A sustained disruption in the operations of any of these manufacturers, or in the event the Company would need to change to a new supplier, could result in a significant delay in the ability of the Company to complete any associated activities.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases estimates and assumptions on historical experience when available and on various factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions, including those related to research and development prepaid expenses and accruals, restructuring costs, stock-based compensation, warrant valuation and realization of net deferred income taxes. The Company’s actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions, including the effects of significant risks and uncertainties.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The Company holds these investments in highly rated financial institutions, and, by policy, limits the amounts of credit exposure to any one financial institution. These amounts at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any credit losses in such accounts and does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk on these funds. The Company has no
sheet concentrations of credit risk, such as foreign currency exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities at the date of purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include bank demand deposits, marketable securities with maturities of three months or less at purchase, and money market funds that invest primarily in certificates of deposit, commercial paper and U.S. government and U.S. government agency obligations. Cash equivalents are reported at fair value.
Marketable Securities
Marketable Securities
Marketable securities consist of investments in corporate debt securities. Management determines the appropriate classification of the securities at the time they are acquired and evaluates the appropriateness of such classifications at each balance sheet date. The Company classifies its marketable securities as available-for-sale pursuant to ASC 320,
Investments – Debt and Equity Securities
. The Company classifies marketable securities available to fund current operations as current assets on its consolidated balance sheets. Marketable securities are classified as long-term assets on the consolidated balance sheets if (i) the Company has the intent and ability to hold the investments for a period of at least one year and (ii) the contractual maturity date of the investments is greater than one year. Marketable securities are recorded at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ (deficit) equity and a component of total comprehensive loss in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss, until realized. The fair value of these securities is based on quoted prices for identical or similar assets. Realized gains and losses are included in interest income in the consolidated statement of operations on a specific-identification basis. 
There were
on sales of marketable securities for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022
and no realized gains 
losses on sales of marketable securities for the three and nine months ended September 30, 
2021. There were no marketable securities that had been in an unrealized loss position for more than 12 months as of September 30, 2022 or December 31, 2021.
The Company reviews marketable securities for other-than-temporary impairment whenever the fair value of a marketable security is less than the amortized cost and evidence indicates that a marketable security’s carrying amount is not recoverable within a reasonable period of time. Other-than-temporary impairments of investments are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations if the Company has experienced a credit loss, has the intent to sell the marketable security, or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the marketable security before recovery of the amortized cost basis. Evidence considered in this assessment includes reasons for the impairment, compliance with the Company’s investment policy, the severity and the duration of the impairment and changes in value subsequent to the end of the period.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and warrant liabilities. Fair value estimates of these instruments are made at a specific point in time, based on relevant market information. These estimates may be subjective in nature and involve uncertainties and matters of judgment and therefore cannot be determined with precision. The fair value of the Company’s warrant liabilities is based upon unobservable inputs, as described further below.
The Company is required to disclose information on all assets and liabilities reported at fair value that enables an assessment of the inputs used in determining the reported fair values. Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820,
Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
(“ASC 820”), establishes a hierarchy of inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy applies only to the valuation inputs used in determining the reported fair value of the investments and is not a measure of the investment credit quality. The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1—Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2—Valuations based on quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3—Valuations that require inputs that reflect the Company’s own assumptions that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.
To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The Company had no liabilities classified as Level 1 or Level 2. The carrying amounts reported in the accompanying financial statements for accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their respective fair values due to their short-term maturities. The fair value of the warrant liabilities is discussed in Note 4, “Fair Value Measurements.”
Stock-based Compensation
Stock-based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718,
Compensation—Stock Compensation,
which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based payment awards made to employees, directors, and
including employee stock options. Compensation expense based on the grant date fair value is generally amortized over the requisite service period of the award on a straight-line basis.
The fair value of options is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model on the date of grant based on key assumptions such as stock price, risk free interest rates, expected volatility, expected term, and expected dividend yield. The Company’s estimates of these assumptions are based on historical data and judgment regarding future trends and factors.
Government Contracts and Grant Agreements
Government Contracts and Grant Agreements
The Company recognizes a receivable, which is included in other current assets on its consolidated balance sheet, and the related reduction in its research and development expenses when the actual reimbursable costs have been incurred and there is reasonable assurance that the Company has complied with the conditions of the applicable government contract or grant agreement and the amounts will be received. The Company recognized a reduction to its research and development expense in the amount of approximately $0.9 million and $3.7 million for the three months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, and $5.2 million and $7.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The receivable for government contracts and grant agreements as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021 was approximately $0.6 million and $4.1 million, respectively, and is included in other current assets on the consolidated balance sheet. The Company has approximately $8.5 million of committed government contract and grant agreement funding remaining as of September 30, 2022.
The Company accounts for leases in accordance with Accounting Standards Update No.
(Topic 842). The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception and recognizes
(“ROU”) assets as the present value of the lease payments plus initial direct costs, if any, less any lease incentives. Assets are classified as either operating or finance ROU assets according to the classification criteria in Topic 842. The corresponding liability is computed as the present value of the lease payments at inception. The present value of the lease payments is computed using the rate implicit in the lease, if known, or the Company’s incremental borrowing rate. Operating lease costs are charged to operations on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The Company’s leases are further discussed in Note 7—“Commitments and Contingencies.”
Under the Company’s policy, it does not record an ROU asset or corresponding liability for arrangements where the initial lease term is one year or less. Those leases are expensed on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
The Company has made estimates and judgments regarding the amount and timing of its restructuring expense and liability, including current and future period termination
benefits and other costs to be incurred when related actions take place. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Restructuring charges are reflected in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The Company has accounted for these expenses in accordance with ASC 420,
Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations
Net Loss per Share
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share applicable to common stockholders is calculated by dividing net loss applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders is calculated by adjusting weighted average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury-stock method. For purposes of the dilutive net loss per share applicable to common stockholders’ calculation, stock options and warrants are considered to be common stock equivalents but are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders, as their effect would be anti-dilutive; therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders were the same for all periods presented.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements and Recent Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Government Assistance
On January 1, 2022, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update
No. 2021-10,
Disclosure by Business Entities about Government Assistance (ASU
improves the transparency of government assistance received by certain business entities by requiring the disclosure of (1) the types of government assistance received, (2) the accounting for such assistance, and (3) the effect of the assistance on the business entity’s financial statements. The adoption of the new guidance did not affect the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued a new Accounting Standards Update,
Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (ASU
amends the guidance for measuring and recording credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost by replacing the “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. Accordingly, these financial assets will be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. This new standard also requires that credit losses related to
debt securities be recorded through an allowance for such losses rather than reducing the carrying amount under the current, other-than-temporary-impairment model. The new standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that this new standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.