Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial information as of June 30, 2021 and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 has been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 was derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements. The Company’s audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, including all related disclosures and the complete listing of significant accounting policies as described in Note 2 thereof, are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form
10-K
that was filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021.
In the opinion of management, the unaudited financial information as of June 30, 2021 and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 reflects all adjustments, which are normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present a fair statement of financial position, results of operations and cash flows. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full fiscal year or any future periods.
Principles of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation
The Company has a wholly-owned subsidiary, ContraFect International Limited, in Scotland that established legal status for previous interactions with the European Economic Area. This subsidiary is dormant or is otherwise
non-operative.
Any inter-company accounts have been eliminated in consolidation.
Significant Risks and Uncertainties
Significant Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s operations are subject to a number of factors that can affect its operating results and financial condition. Such factors include, but are not limited to, the results of clinical testing and trial activities of the Company’s products, the Company’s ability to obtain regulatory approval to market its products, competition from products manufactured and sold or being developed by other companies, the price of, and demand for, the Company’s products, the Company’s ability to negotiate favorable licensing or other manufacturing and marketing agreements for its products, the Company’s ability to raise capital and the effects of the novel coronavirus, or
COVID-19,
on the Company’s business, operations and financial performance and position.
During 2020,
COVID-19
was declared a pandemic and spread to multiple regions across the globe, including the United States and Europe. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has presented substantial public health challenges and is impacting the global healthcare system, including the conduct of clinical trials in the U.S. and other parts of the world. Healthcare resources, including the staff required to support the conduct of clinical trials, are being diverted away from the conduct of clinical trials other than COVID-19 studies at hospitals serving as clinical trial sites. There are also operational impacts on local, regional and national CROs, manufacturers and other vendors and suppliers and an intermittent lack of availability of certain raw materials and consumables for manufacturing. While global infection rates have significantly reduced from their peak during 2020, new variants continue to circulate, and the number of
COVID-19
infections and hospitalizations are increasing rapidly. Uncertainty remains as to whether additional restrictions may be implemented to address the spread of new variants.
The pandemic has had an impact, both directly and indirectly, on the Company. The full extent of the impact on the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, including expenses, research and development, manufacturing costs and timelines, and clinical trial progress, will depend on future developments that remain highly uncertain.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases estimates and assumptions on historical experience when available and on various factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions, including those related to accruals, stock-based compensation, valuation of warrant liabilities and income taxes. The Company’s actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions, including the effects of significant risks and uncertainties.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The Company holds these investments in highly rated financial institutions, and, by policy, limits the amounts of credit exposure to any one financial institution. These amounts at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any credit losses in such accounts and does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk on these funds. The Company has no
off-balance
sheet concentrations of credit risk, such as foreign currency exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities at the date of purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include bank demand deposits, marketable securities with maturities of three months or less at purchase, and money market funds that invest primarily in certificates of deposit, commercial paper and U.S. government and U.S. government agency obligations. Cash equivalents are reported at fair value.
Marketable Securities
Marketable Securities
Marketable securities consist of investments in corporate debt securities. Management determines the appropriate classification of the securities at the time they are acquired and evaluates the appropriateness of such classifications at each balance sheet date. The Company classifies its marketable securities as
available-for-sale
pursuant to ASC 320, Investments – Debt and Equity Securities. The Company classifies marketable securities available to fund current operations as current assets on its consolidated balance sheets. Marketable securities are classified as long-term assets on the consolidated balance sheets if (i) the Company has the intent and ability
to hold the investments for a period of at least one year and (ii) the contractual maturity date of the investments is greater than one year. Marketable securities are recorded at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income in stockholders’ equity and a component of total comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), until realized. The fair value of these securities is based on quoted prices for identical or
 
similar assets. The Company utilizes the specific identification method in computing realized gains and losses on sales of its marketable securities. Realized gains and losses are included in other income (expense) in the consolidated statements of operations. There were no realized gains or losses on marketable securities for the three or six months ended June 30, 2021 or 2020. There were no marketable securities that had been in an unrealized loss position for more than 12 months as of June 30, 2021 or December 31, 2020.
The Company reviews marketable securities for other-than-temporary impairment whenever the fair value of a marketable security is less than the amortized cost and evidence indicates that a marketable security’s carrying amount is not recoverable within a reasonable period of time. Other-than- temporary impairments of investments are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations if the Company has experienced a credit loss, has the intent to sell the marketable security, or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the marketable security before recovery of the amortized cost basis. Evidence considered in this assessment includes reasons for the impairment, compliance with the Company’s investment policy, the severity and the duration of the impairment and changes in value subsequent to the end of the period.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and warrant liabilities. Fair value estimates of these instruments are made at a specific point in time, based on relevant market information. These estimates may be subjective in nature and involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment and therefore cannot be determined with precision. The fair value of the Company’s warrant liabilities are based upon unobservable inputs, as described further below.
The Company is required to disclose information on all assets and liabilities reported at fair value that enables an assessment of the inputs used in determining the reported fair values. Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820,
Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
, establishes a hierarchy of inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy applies only to the valuation inputs used in determining the reported fair value of the investments and is not a measure of the investment credit quality.
The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1—Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2—Valuations based on quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3—Valuations that require inputs that reflect the Company’s own assumptions that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.
To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The carrying amounts reported in the accompanying financial statements for accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their respective fair values due to their short-term maturities. The fair value of the warrant liabilities is discussed in Note 4, “Fair Value Measurements.”
Stock-based Compensation
Stock-based Compensation
The Company accounts for
stock
-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all
stock
-based payment awards made to employees,
non-employees
and
non-employee
directors, including employee stock options. Compensation expense based on the grant date fair value is generally amortized over the requisite service period of the award on a straight-line basis.
The fair value of options is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options on the date of grant based on key assumptions such as stock price, expected volatility and expected term. The Company’s estimates of these assumptions are primarily based on historical data and judgment regarding future trends and factors.
Government Contracts and Grant Agreements
Government Contracts and Grant Agreements
On March 10, 2021, the Company entered into a cost-share contract (the “BARDA Contract”) with BARDA, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. The Company evaluated the BARDA Contract under Topic 606 and determined that it does not fall within the scope of Topic 606. Accordingly, the Company considered other relevant guidance and concluded that the BARDA Contract will be accounted for consistent with its accounting practices related to its existing grant agreements.
The Company recognizes a receivable and the related reduction in its research and development expenses when the actual reimbursable costs have been incurred and there is reasonable assurance that the Company has complied with the conditions of the applicable government contract or grant agreement and the amounts will be received. The Company recognized a reduction to its research and development expense in the amount of approximately $3.0 million and $1.0 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 respectively, and $4.0 million and $2.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The receivable for government contracts and grant agreements as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 was approximately $3.8 million and $1.1 million, respectively, and is included in prepaid expenses and other current assets on the balance sheet. The Company has approximately $14.2 million of committed government contract and grant agreement funding remaining as of June 30, 2021.
Leases
Leases
The Company accounts for leases in accordance with Accounting Standards Update No.
2016-02-
Leases
(Topic 842). The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception and recognizes
right-of-use
(“ROU”) assets as the present value of the lease payments plus initial direct costs, if any, less any lease incentives. Assets are classified as either operating or finance ROU assets according to the classification criteria in Topic 842. The corresponding liability is computed as the present value of the lease payments at inception. The present value of the lease payments is computed using the rate implicit in the lease, if known, or the Company’s incremental borrowing rate. Operating lease costs are charged to operations on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The Company’s leases are further discussed in Note 7—“Commitments.”
Under the Company’s policy, it does not record an ROU asset or corresponding liability for arrangements where the initial lease term is one year or less. Those leases are expensed on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
Net (Loss) Income Per Share
Net (Loss) Income Per Share
Basic net (loss) income per share is calculated by dividing net (loss) income by the weighted average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net (loss) income per share is calculated by adjusting weighted average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury-stock method. For purposes of a dilutive net loss per share calculation, stock options and warrants are considered to be common stock equivalents but are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would be anti-dilutive given the Company’s net loss. Common stock equivalents may also be excluded from the calculation of diluted net income per share if the exercise prices exceed the average market price for the reporting period.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements and Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Income Taxes
On January 1, 2021, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update No.
2019-12-
Income Taxes
(Topic 740)
, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes. The adoption of the new guidance did not affect the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
 
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued a new Accounting Standards Update,
Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (ASU
2016-13).
ASU
2016-13
amends the guidance for measuring and recording credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost by replacing the “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. Accordingly, these financial assets will be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. This new standard also requires that credit losses related to
available-for-sale
debt securities be recorded through an allowance for such losses rather than reducing the carrying amount under the current, other-than-temporary-impairment model. The new standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that this new standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.