Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.19.1
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial information as of March 31, 2019 and for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 has been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 was derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements. The Company’s audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018, including all related disclosures and the complete listing of significant accounting policies as described in Note 2 thereof, are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K that was filed with the SEC on March 14, 2019.
In the opinion of management, the unaudited financial information as of March 31, 2019 and for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 reflects all adjustments, which are normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present a fair statement of financial position, results of operations and cash flows. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full fiscal year or any future periods.
 
Principles of Consolidation
The Company has a wholly-owned subsidiary, ContraFect International Limited, in Scotland that establishes legal status for interactions with the European Economic Area. This subsidiary is dormant or is otherwise non-operative. Any inter-company accounts have been eliminated in consolidation.
Significant Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s operations are subject to a number of factors that can affect its operating results and financial condition. Such factors include, but are not limited to, the results of clinical testing and trial activities of the Company’s products, the Company’s ability to obtain regulatory approval to market its products, competition from products manufactured and sold or being developed by other companies, the price of, and demand for, the Company’s products, the Company’s ability to negotiate favorable licensing or other manufacturing and marketing agreements for its products and the Company’s ability to raise capital.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases estimates and assumptions on historical experience when available and on various factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions, including those related to accruals, fair value measurements, stock-based compensation, warrant valuation and income taxes. The Company’s actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The Company holds these investments in highly rated financial institutions, and, by policy, limits the amounts of credit exposure to any one financial institution. These amounts at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any credit losses in such accounts and does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk on these funds. The Company has no off-balance sheet concentrations of credit risk, such as foreign currency exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities at the date of purchase of
three months or less
to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include bank demand deposits, marketable securities with maturities of three months or less at purchase, and money market funds that invest primarily in certificates of deposit, commercial paper and U.S. government and U.S. government agency obligations. Cash equivalents are reported at fair value.
Marketable Securities
Marketable securities consist of investments in corporate debt and U.S. Treasury securities. Management determines the appropriate classification of the securities at the time they are acquired and evaluates the appropriateness of such classifications at each balance sheet date. The Company classifies its marketable securities as available-for-sale pursuant to ASC 320,
Investments – Debt and Equity Securities
. The Company classifies marketable securities available to fund current operations as current assets on its consolidated balance sheets. Marketable securities are classified as long-term assets on the consolidated balance sheets if (i) the Company has the intent and ability to hold the investments for a period of at least one year and (ii) the contractual maturity date of the investments is greater than one year. Marketable securities are recorded at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in stockholders’ equity and a component of total comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), until realized. The fair value of these securities is based on quoted prices for identical or similar assets. Realized gains and losses are included in interest income in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss on a specific-identification basis.
There were no realized gains or losses on marketable securities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 or 2018. There were no marketable securities that had been in an unrealized loss position for more than 12 months as of March 31, 2019 or 2018.
 
The Company reviews marketable securities for other-than-temporary impairment whenever the fair value of a marketable security is less than the amortized cost and evidence indicates that a marketable security’s carrying amount is not recoverable within a reasonable period of time. Other-than-temporary impairments of investments are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations if the Company has experienced a credit loss, has the intent to sell the marketable security, or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the marketable security before recovery of the amortized cost basis. Evidence considered in this assessment includes reasons for the impairment, compliance with the Company’s investment policy, the severity and the duration of the impairment and changes in value subsequent to the end of the period.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and warrant liabilities. Fair value estimates of these instruments are made at a specific point in time, based on relevant market information. These estimates may be subjective in nature and involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment and therefore cannot be determined with precision. The fair value of the Company’s warrant liabilities are based upon unobservable inputs, as described further below.
The Company is required to disclose information on all assets and liabilities reported at fair value that enables an assessment of the inputs used in determining the reported fair values. Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820,
Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
, establishes a hierarchy of inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy applies only to the valuation inputs used in determining the reported fair value of the investments and is not a measure of the investment credit quality.
The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1—Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2—Valuations based on quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3—Valuations that require inputs that reflect the Company’s own assumptions that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.
To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The carrying amounts reported in the accompanying financial statements for accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their respective fair values due to their short-term maturities. The fair value of the warrant liabilities is discussed in Note 4, “Fair Value Measurements.”
Share-based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, 
Compensation—Stock Compensation, 
which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based payment awards made to employees, non-employees and non-employee directors, including employee stock options. For employee and non-employee directors, compensation expense based on the grant date fair value is generally amortized over the requisite service period of the award on a straight-line basis. For non-employees, effective January 1, 2019, unvested option compensation expense is based on the adoption date fair value and is amortized over the service period on a straight line basis.
The fair value of options is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options on the date of grant for employee and non-employee directors and as of January 1, 2019 for the unvested non-employee stock options based on key assumptions such as stock price, expected volatility and expected term. The Company’s estimates of these assumptions are primarily based on historical data, peer company data and judgment regarding future trends and factors.
 
Grants
The Company recognizes a receivable and the related reduction in its research and development expenses when the actual reimbursable costs have been incurred and there is reasonable assurance that the Company has complied with the conditions of the grants and the amounts will be received. For the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company recognized a reduction to its research and development expense in the amount of approximately $656,000 and $370,000, respectively. The receivable for grants as of March 31, 2019
and December 31, 2018 was approximately
$656,000 and $202,000, respectively, and is included in prepaid expenses and other current assets on the balance sheet. The Company has approximately $3.8 million of approved grant award funding remaining as of March 31, 2019.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net income (loss) per share is calculated by adjusting weighted average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury-stock method. For purposes of a dilutive net loss per share calculation, stock options and warrants are considered to be common stock equivalents but are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would be anti-dilutive given the Company’s net loss. Common stock equivalents may also be excluded from the calculation of diluted net income per share if the exercise prices exceed the average market price for the reporting period.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Leases
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02-
Leases (Topic 842)
, as of January 1, 2019, using the optional modified retrospective approach with no cumulative-effect adjustment to equity as of January 1, 2019. Prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historical accounting under previous lease guidance. The Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within Topic 842, which among other things, allowed it to carry forward the historical lease classification of those leases in place as of January 1, 2019 and to not separate lease and non-lease components when the requisite criteria is met to be treated as such. The Company determined that the only contract containing a lease was the leases of its corporate headquarters at 28 Wells Avenue in Yonkers, New York (see “Note 7—Commitments” in these consolidated financial statements for a description of the leases).
We recognize right-of-use (“ROU”) assets at the inception of the arrangement as the present value of the lease payments plus our initial direct costs, if any, less any lease incentives. The corresponding liability is computed as the present value of the lease payments at inception. Assets are classified as either operating or finance ROU assets according to the classification criteria in ASC 842. The present value of the lease payments is computed using the rate implicit in the lease, if known, or our incremental borrowing rate. Operating lease costs are charged to operations on a straight line basis over the term of the lease. Under our policy, we do not record an ROU asset or corresponding liability for arrangements were the initial lease term is one year or less. Those leases are expensed on a straight line basis over the term of the lease.
Impact of adoption of Topic 842
Adoption of the new standard resulted in the recording of ROU assets, net of deferred rent and a lease incentive obligation, of $3.3 million and lease liabilities of approximately
$
4.1
 
million as of January 1, 2019. The lease liability was classified between a current portion of $0.6 million and a long-term portion of $3.5 million. The standard did not impact our consolidated net income and had no impact on cash flows.
 
 
Non-employee stock compensation
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update, 
Compensation-Stock Compensation (ASU 2018-07),
 as of January 1, 2019. The Company elected to utilize the contractual term for its outstanding option grants to non-employees and to recognize forfeitures of awards when incurred. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
Statements of equity
In August 2018, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) adopted the final rule under SEC Release No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, amending certain disclosure requirements that were redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded. Additionally, the amendments expanded the disclosure requirements on the consolidated statements of equity for interim financial statements. Under the amendments, a summary of changes in each caption of stockholders’ equity presented in the consolidated balance sheets must be provided in a note or separate statement. The consolidated statements of equity should present a reconciliation of a beginning balance to the ending balance of each period for which the consolidated statement of comprehensive income is required to be filed. This final rule was effective in the fourth quarter of 2018. The SEC provided relief on the effective date until the first quarter of 2019, and we adopted this rule in the first quarter of 2019.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued a new Accounting Standards Update,
Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (ASU 2016-13).
ASU 2016-13 amends the guidance for measuring and recording credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost by replacing the “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. Accordingly, these financial assets will be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. This new standard also requires that credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities be recorded through an allowance for such losses rather than reducing the carrying amount under the current, other-than-temporary-impairment model. The new standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that this new standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update,
Fair Value Measurement: Disclosure Framework – Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, (ASU 2018-13).
The new standard removes certain disclosures, modifies certain disclosures and adds additional disclosures related to fair value measurement. The new standard will be effective beginning January 1, 2020 and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact ASU 2018-13 may have on its disclosures upon adoption.