424B5
Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-228626

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated December 13, 2018)

11,797,752 Shares of Common Stock

Warrants to Purchase up to 8,848,314 Shares of Common Stock

 

 

LOGO

ContraFect Corporation is offering 11,797,752 shares of common stock and warrants to purchase 8,848,314 shares of common stock. The common stock and warrants will be sold in combination, with one warrant to purchase 0.75 shares of common stock accompanying each share of common stock sold. The combined purchase price for each share of common stock and accompanying warrant is $4.45.

Each warrant will have an exercise price of $4.90 for each whole share, will be exercisable upon issuance and will expire three years from the date of issuance. The shares of common stock and the warrants are immediately separable and will be issued separately, but must be purchased together in this offering.

The common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “CFRX.” On May 20, 2020, the last reported sale price of the common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $5.65 per share. There is no established trading market for the warrants and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to list the warrants on any securities exchange or automated quotation system.

 

 

Investing in our common stock and warrants involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4.

 

     Per Common Share and
Accompanying Warrant
     Total  

Price to the public

   $ 4.45      $ 52,499,996.40  

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)

   $ 0.267      $ 3,149,999.79  

Proceeds, before expenses, to us(2)

   $ 4.183      $ 49,349,996.61  

 

(1)

See “Underwriting” for additional disclosure regarding underwriting discounts, commissions and estimated offering expenses.

(2)

The amount of the offering proceeds to us presented in this table does not give effect to any exercise of the warrants being issued in this offering.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the common stock and warrants to the investors on or about May 27, 2020.

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

Mizuho Securities   Cantor

Lead Manager

Maxim Group LLC

Co-Manager

Janney Montgomery Scott

The date of this prospectus supplement is May 21, 2020.

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-i  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

THE OFFERING

     S-2  

RISK FACTORS

     S-4  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-7  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-8  

DILUTION

     S-9  

DESCRIPTION OF THE SECURITIES WE ARE OFFERING

     S-10  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES TO HOLDERS OF THE SECURITIES

     S-14  

UNDERWRITING

     S-21  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-29  

EXPERTS

     S-29  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-29  
PROSPECTUS   

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED SHARE DIVIDENDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     22  

GLOBAL SECURITIES

     23  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     27  

LEGAL MATTERS

     29  

EXPERTS

     29  

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is the prospectus supplement, including the documents incorporated by reference, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. Before you invest, you should carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, all information incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” on page S-29 of this prospectus supplement. These documents contain information you should consider when making your investment decision. This prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in the accompanying prospectus. To the extent that any statement that we make in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in the accompanying prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference, the statements made in this prospectus supplement will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in the accompanying prospectus and such documents incorporated by reference.

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectuses we may provide to you in connection with this offering. Neither we nor any of the underwriters have authorized any other person to provide you with any information that is different. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, the securities offered hereby only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the offering of the securities offered hereby in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the securities offered hereby and the distribution of this prospectus supplement outside the United States. This prospectus supplement does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference, concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market share, is based on information from our own management estimates and research, as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information, our knowledge of our industry and assumptions based on such information and knowledge, which we believe to be reasonable. In addition, assumptions and estimates of our and our industry’s future performance are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. These and other important factors could cause our future performance to differ materially from our assumptions and estimates. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

When we refer to “ContraFect,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus supplement, we mean ContraFect Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified.

This prospectus supplement also includes trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus supplement appear without the ® and symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information about us, this offering and information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, in the accompanying prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our securities. Before making an investment decision, to fully understand this offering and its consequences to you, you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and the financial statements and related notes and the other information that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Our Company

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of direct lytic agents, or DLAs, including lysins and amurin peptides, as new medical modalities for the treatment of life-threatening, antibiotic-resistant infections. Antibiotic-resistant infections account for 2,000,000 illnesses in the United States and 700,000 deaths worldwide each year. We intend to address antibiotic-resistant infections using product candidates from our lysin and amurin peptide platforms. We believe DLAs are fundamentally different than antibiotics and offer a potential paradigm shift in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections.

Lysins are recombinantly-produced enzymes, that when applied to bacteria cleave a key component of the target bacteria’s peptidoglycan cell wall, resulting in rapid bacterial cell death. In addition to the speed of action and potent cidality, we believe lysins are differentiated by their other hallmark features, which include the demonstrated ability to eradicate biofilms and synergistically boost the efficacy of conventional antibiotics in animal models. Lysins also tend to have a “targeted spectrum,” meaning they kill only specific species of bacteria or closely related bacteria. Amurin peptides are a new class of DLAs, discovered in our laboratories, which disrupt the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, resulting in rapid bacterial cell death, offering a distinct mechanism of action from lysins. Amurins are further differentiated from lysins by potent “broad spectrum” in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative pathogens in, including deadly, drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (“P. aeruginosa”), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae bacteria species as well as difficult to treat pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter and Burkholderia species. The highly differentiated properties of DLAs have shown these agents to be complementary to and synergistic with conventional antibiotics enabling their potential use in addition to antibiotics with the goal of improving clinical outcomes compared to antibiotics alone. The development of DLAs involves a novel clinical and regulatory strategy, using superiority design clinical trials with the goal of delivering significantly improved clinical outcomes for patients with serious, antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, including biofilm-associated infections. We believe this approach affords potential clinical benefits to patients as well as the potential ability to mitigate against further development of antibiotic resistance.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in March 2008. Our principal executive offices are located at 28 Wells Avenue, 3rd Floor, Yonkers, NY 10701, and our telephone number is (914) 207-2300.

 



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

11,797,752 shares, plus 8,848,314 shares of our common stock underlying the warrants offered in this offering.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

27,129,794 shares (assuming none of the warrants issued in this offering are exercised).

 

Warrants offered by us

Warrants to purchase up to 8,848,314 shares of common stock. Each warrant will have an exercise price of $4.90 for each whole share, will be exercisable upon issuance and will expire three years from the date of issuance. The terms of the warrants will be governed by the Warrant Agreement, to be dated May 27, 2020 between us and American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC (the “Warrant Agent”). See “Description of Securities — Warrants.”

 

  This prospectus supplement also relates to the offering of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants. The exercise price of the warrants is subject to adjustment in certain circumstances.

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $48.8 million (assuming none of the warrants issued in this offering are exercised), after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

  We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to continue funding our Phase 3 DISRUPT trial of exebacase (CF-301) in Staph aureus bacteremia, including right-sided endocarditis, to fund advancement of our portfolio, including IND-enabling activities for CF-370, an engineered gram-negative lysin directly targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Please see “Use of Proceeds” on page S-7.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement for a discussion of factors that you should read and consider before investing in our securities.

 

Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “CFRX”. There is no established trading market for the warrants and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to list the warrants on any securities exchange or automated quotation system.

 

Transfer agent and warrant agent

American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC


 

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The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 15,332,042 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020 and excludes:

 

   

1,818,588 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2020 at a weighted average exercise price of $16.69 per share;

 

   

3,033,196 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2020 at a weighted average exercise price of $22.60 per share; and

 

   

an additional 112,657 shares of our common stock that are available for future issuance under our 2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan.

Unless otherwise indicated, this prospectus supplement reflects and assumes:

 

   

no exercise of the outstanding options and warrants described above; and

 

   

no exercise of the warrants being offered hereby.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before investing in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein or therein, including the risks and uncertainties discussed under “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. If any of the risks incorporated by reference or set forth below occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our securities could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to this Offering

Purchasers of common stock and accompanying warrants in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of their investment. You may experience further dilution upon exercise of options and warrants.

The public offering price per share of common stock and accompanying warrants in this offering is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock before giving effect to this offering. Accordingly, if you purchase common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate substantial dilution of approximately $2.33 per share, representing the difference between the public offering price per share of common stock and accompanying warrants and our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 (without giving effect to the potential exercises of the warrants offered hereby). Furthermore, if outstanding options or warrants or the warrants offered hereby are exercised, you could experience further dilution. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section in this prospectus supplement entitled “Dilution.”

A substantial number of shares of common stock may be sold in the market following this offering, which may depress the market price for our common stock or the warrants.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market following this offering could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. A substantial majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock are, and the shares of common stock offered hereby or issuable upon exercise of the warrants offered hereby, or will be, freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Because the warrants are exercisable into our common stock, volatility or a reduction in the market price of our common stock could have an adverse effect on the market price of the warrants.

There is no public market for the warrants to purchase shares of our common stock being offered in this offering.

There is no established public trading market for the warrants being offered in this offering, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply to list the warrants on any national securities exchange or other nationally recognized trading system, including The Nasdaq Capital Market. Without an active market, the liquidity of the warrants will be limited.

We have broad discretion to determine how to use the funds raised in this offering, and may use them in ways that may not enhance our operating results or the price of our common stock or warrants.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering, and we could spend the proceeds from this offering in ways our stockholders may not agree with or that do not yield a favorable

 

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return, if at all. We intend to use the net proceeds to continue funding our Phase 3 DISRUPT trial of exebacase (CF-301) in Staph aureus bacteremia, including right-sided endocarditis, to fund advancement of our portfolio, including IND-enabling activities for CF-370, an engineered gram-negative lysin directly targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. However, our use of these proceeds may differ substantially from our current plans. If we do not invest or apply the proceeds of this offering in ways that improve our operating results, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline and could have an adverse effect on the market price of the warrants.

Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

Under Section 382 and related provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a change (by value) in its equity ownership by more than 50 percentage points over a three year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income may be limited. As a result of our past transactions, we may have experienced an “ownership change.” At this time, we have not completed a study to assess whether an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code has occurred, or whether there have been multiple ownership changes since our formation, due to the costs and complexities associated with such a study. We may also experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership. Thus, our ability to utilize NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes to reduce future tax liabilities may be substantially restricted.

Further, U.S. tax laws limit the time during which NOL carryforwards generated before January 1, 2018 may be applied against future taxes. While NOL carryforwards generated on or after January 1, 2018 are not subject to expiration, the deductibility of such NOL carryforwards is limited to 80% of our taxable income for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2021 (as discussed in the next paragraph). Therefore, we may not be able to take full advantage of these NOL carryforwards for federal or state tax purposes. As of December 31, 2019, we had federal and state NOL carryforwards of approximately $201.3 million and $217.8 million, respectively, of which approximately $145.7 million and $156.0 million, respectively, were generated before January 1, 2018, and federal research and development credits of approximately $3.1 million, the use of which could be limited or eliminated under Section 382 and related provisions of the Code by virtue of one or more “ownership changes.”

On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The CARES Act allows NOLs incurred in 2018, 2019 and 2020 to be carried back to each of the five preceding taxable years to generate a refund of previously paid income taxes. The CARES Act also modifies existing law by limiting the deductibility of NOLs generated on or after January 1, 2018 to 80% of our taxable income only for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2021. We are currently evaluating the impact of the CARES Act but at present do not expect the NOL carryback provision of the CARES Act to result in a material cash benefit to us.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering contain forward-looking statements and information within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning our strategy, our beliefs regarding lysins, future operations, future financial position, the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents, future revenues, projected costs, prospects and plans and objectives of management. The words “anticipates”, “believes”, “estimates”, “expects”, “intends”, “targets”, “may”, “plans”, “projects”, “potential”, “will”, “would”, “could” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. All such forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, statements regarding:

 

   

the impact of COVID-19 on our ongoing and planned clinical trials, our research and development activities and financial markets;

 

   

the success, cost, timing and potential indications of our product development activities and clinical trials;

 

   

our ability to advance into and through clinical development and ultimately obtain FDA approval for our product candidates;

 

   

our future marketing and sales programs;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates and our expectations regarding the size of the commercial markets for our product candidates;

 

   

our research and development plans and ability to bring forward additional product candidates into preclinical and clinical development;

 

   

the effect of competition and proprietary rights of third parties;

 

   

the availability of and our ability to obtain additional financing;

 

   

the effects of existing and future federal, state and foreign regulations;

 

   

the seeking of joint development, licensing or distribution and collaboration and marketing arrangements with third parties;

 

   

the period of time for which our existing cash and cash equivalents will enable us to fund our operations; and

 

   

our intended use of proceeds from this offering.

As more fully described under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and under “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, many important factors affect our ability to achieve our stated objectives and to develop and commercialize any product candidates. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the risks and uncertainties set forth in our filings with the SEC. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectuses that we have authorized for use in this offering with the understanding that our actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements that we make. The forward-looking statements are applicable only as of the date on which they are made, and we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, will be approximately $48.8 million.

The above does not give effect to any exercise of the warrants being offered in this offering.

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to continue funding our Phase 3 DISRUPT trial of exebacase (CF-301) in Staph aureus bacteremia, including right-sided endocarditis, to fund advancement of our portfolio, including IND-enabling activities for CF-370, an engineered gram-negative lysin directly targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We believe that our cash and cash equivalents, together with the net proceeds from this offering, will fund our operations into the first quarter of 2022.

We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors the board of directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any future financing instruments.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in this offering, your ownership interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of common stock and accompanying warrants, assuming no value is attributable to the warrants, and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

As of March 31, 2020, we had a net tangible book value of $8.6 million, or $0.56 per share of common stock. Our net tangible book value per share represents total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding at March 31, 2020.

After giving effect to the issuance and sale by us of 11,797,752 shares of common stock and accompanying warrants in this offering (but without giving effect to any exercise of the warrants being offered in this offering) and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 would have been approximately $57.4 million, or approximately $2.12 per share. This amount represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $1.56 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $2.33 per share to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering.

Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the public offering price per share of common stock paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Public offering price per share of common stock and accompanying warrants

      $ 4.45  

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

   $ 0.56     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

     1.56     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

        2.12  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering

      $ 2.33  
     

 

 

 

The above discussion and table are based on 15,332,042 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020 and excludes:

 

   

1,818,588 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2020 at a weighted average exercise price of $16.69 per share;

 

   

3,033,196 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2020 at a weighted average exercise price of $22.60 per share; and

 

   

an additional 112,657 shares of our common stock that are available for future issuance under our 2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan.

To the extent any of these outstanding options or warrants are exercised at a price less than the public offering price, there may be further dilution to purchasers of our common stock in this offering.

The information above does not give effect to the potential exercise of the warrants offered hereby.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE SECURITIES WE ARE OFFERING

In this offering, we are offering 11,797,752 shares of common stock and warrants to purchase up to 8,848,314 shares of common stock. Each warrant will have an exercise price of $4.90 for each whole share. No fractional warrants will be issued. The shares of common stock and the warrants are immediately separable and will be issued separately, but must be purchased together in this offering.

Common Stock

The material terms and provisions of our common stock and each other class of our securities that qualifies or limits our common stock are described under the caption “Description of Capital Stock” starting on page 8 of the accompanying prospectus.

Warrants

The material terms and provisions of the warrants to purchase common stock being offered pursuant to this prospectus are summarized below. The warrants will be issued pursuant to a warrant agreement between us and the Warrant Agent. This summary of some provisions of the warrants and warrant agreement is not complete. For the complete terms of the warrants and warrant agreement, you should refer to the form of warrant and warrant agreement to be filed as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K to be filed and incorporated by reference herein.

The warrants issued in this offering entitle the registered holder to purchase shares of our common stock at a price equal to $4.90, subject to adjustment as discussed below, immediately following the issuance of such warrant and terminating at 11:59 p.m., New York time, on the date that is three years from the date of issuance.

The exercise price and number of shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants may be adjusted in certain circumstances, including in the event of a stock dividend, a forward or reverse split of our shares of common stock, and certain other events. However, the warrants will not be adjusted for issuances of common stock at prices below their respective exercise prices.

We will initially issue the warrants in the form of global securities held in book-entry form. The warrants initially will be represented by one or more permanent global certificates in fully registered form and will be deposited with a custodian for, and registered in the name of, a nominee of The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York (DTC), as depository. Owners of beneficial interests in the warrants represented by the global securities will hold their interests pursuant to the procedures and practices of DTC and must exercise any rights in respect of their interests in accordance with the procedures and practices of DTC. As a result, beneficial interests in any such securities will be shown on, and transfers will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC and its direct and indirect participants and any such interest may not be exchanged for certificated securities, except in limited circumstances. Beneficial owners will not be holders and will not be entitled to any rights provided to the holders of the warrants under the global securities or the global warrant. We and any of our agents may treat DTC as the sole holder and registered owner of the global securities.

A holder of a warrant certificate may exercise such warrant upon surrender of the applicable warrant certificate on or prior to the applicable expiration date at the offices of the Warrant Agent, with the exercise form on the reverse side of the warrant certificate completed and executed as indicated, accompanied by full payment of the exercise price, by certified or official bank check payable to us (or pursuant to the cashless exercise procedure described below, if applicable), for the number of warrants being exercised.

Subject to limited exceptions, a holder of warrants will not have the right to exercise any portion of its warrants if the holder (together with such holder’s affiliates, and any persons acting as a group together with such holder or any of such holder’s affiliates) would beneficially own a number of shares of our common stock in excess of 4.99% of the shares of our common stock then outstanding after giving effect to such exercise (the “Beneficial Ownership Limitation”); provided, however, that upon notice to the Company, the holder may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, provided that in no event shall the Beneficial

 

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Ownership Limitation exceed 19.99% and any increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until 61 days following notice of such increase from the holder to us.

The holders of the warrants must pay the exercise price in cash upon exercise of the warrants, unless such holders are utilizing the cashless exercise provision of the warrants, which is only available in certain circumstances such as if the underlying shares are not registered with the SEC pursuant to an effective registration statement. We intend to use commercially reasonable efforts to have the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, effective when the warrants are exercised.

If an effective registration statement is available for the issuance of the warrant shares, then the warrants may only be exercised, in whole or in part, at such time by means of a cash exercise. If at the time of exercise hereof there is no effective registration statement registering, or the prospectus contained therein is not available for use for the issuance of the warrant shares to the holders of such warrants, then the warrants may be exercised (in the sole discretion of the holder), in whole or in part, at such time by means of a “cashless exercise” in which the holder of such warrants shall be entitled to receive that number of warrant shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (A x B) – (A x C) by (D), where:

(A) = the total number of shares with respect to which the warrant is then being exercised.

(B) = the VWAP of the common stock of the trading day ending at the close of business on the Nasdaq Capital Market immediately prior to the time of exercise as set forth in the applicable exercise notice; and

(C) = the exercise price then in effect for the applicable warrant shares at the time of such exercise.

(D) = the VWAP of our common stock at the close of business on the Nasdaq Capital Market on the date of delivery of the applicable exercise notice.

Under the terms of the warrants, we are not permitted to enter into or be party to a fundamental transaction (as defined below) in which our company is not the survivor (such a successor entity, the “successor entity”) unless the successor entity assumes in writing all of our obligations under the warrants pursuant to written agreements in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the holders, including agreements to deliver to the holders in exchange for the warrants a security of the successor entity, including, without limitation, which is exercisable for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock equivalent to the shares of our common stock acquirable and receivable upon exercise of the warrants prior to such fundamental transaction, and with an exercise price which applies the exercise price under the warrants to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of our common stock pursuant to such fundamental transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such adjustments to the number of shares of capital stock and such exercise price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of the warrants immediately prior to the consummation of such fundamental transaction). Upon the consummation of each fundamental transaction, the successor entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such fundamental transaction, the provisions of the warrant shall refer instead to the successor entity), and may exercise every right and power of us and shall assume all of our obligations under the warrants with the same effect as if such successor entity had been named as the Company herein. Upon consummation of each fundamental transaction, the successor entity shall deliver to the holders confirmation that there shall be issued upon exercise of the warrants at any time after the consummation of the applicable fundamental transaction, in lieu of the shares of common stock (or other securities, cash, assets or other property) issuable upon the exercise of the warrants prior to the applicable fundamental transaction, such shares of publicly traded common stock (or its equivalent) of the successor entity (including its parent entity) which the holders would have been entitled to receive upon the happening of the applicable fundamental transaction had the warrants been exercised immediately prior to the applicable fundamental transaction (without regard to any limitations on the exercise of the warrants), as adjusted in accordance with the provisions of the warrants. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a holder may elect, at its sole option, to waive this provision to permit the fundamental transaction without the assumption of its warrant. In addition, prior to the consummation of each fundamental transaction pursuant to which holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive securities or other assets with respect to or in exchange for shares of our

 

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common stock, we must make appropriate provision to insure that a holder of the warrants will thereafter have the right to receive upon an exercise of the warrants at any time after the consummation of the applicable fundamental transaction but prior to the expiration date, in lieu of the shares of our common stock (or other securities, cash, assets or other property) issuable upon the exercise of the warrant, prior to such fundamental transaction, such shares of stock, securities, cash, assets or any other property whatsoever (including warrants or other purchase or subscription rights) which the holder would have been entitled to receive upon the happening of the applicable fundamental transaction had the warrants been exercised immediately prior to the applicable fundamental transaction. The provision to be made by us pursuant to the preceding sentence must be in a form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the holder.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, in the event of a fundamental transaction that is (1) an all cash transaction, (2) a “Rule 13e-3 transaction” as defined in Rule 13e-3 under the Exchange Act, or (3) a fundamental transaction involving a person or entity not traded on a national securities exchange, including, but not limited to, the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, or the Nasdaq Capital Market, we or any successor entity shall, at the option of the holder of the warrant, exercisable at any time concurrently with, or within 30 days after, the consummation of the fundamental transaction, purchase the warrant from the holder by paying to the holder an amount of cash equal to the Black Scholes Value (as defined below) of the remaining unexercised portion of the warrant on the date of the consummation of such fundamental transaction.

No fractional shares of common stock will be issued upon exercise of the warrants. If, upon exercise of the warrant, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will, upon exercise, round down to the nearest whole number of shares of common stock to be issued to the warrant holder.

We do not intend to apply for listing of the warrants on any securities exchange or other trading system.

Definitions

The following terms have the meaning set forth below as used in this description:

“Black Scholes Value” means the value of the warrant based on the Black and Scholes Option Pricing Model obtained from the “OV” function on Bloomberg determined as of the day of consummation of the applicable fundamental transaction for pricing purposes and reflecting (A) a risk-free interest rate corresponding to the U.S. Treasury rate for a period equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable fundamental transaction and the expiration date of the warrant, (B) an expected volatility equal to the lesser of 75% and the 100 day volatility obtained from the HVT function on Bloomberg as of the trading day immediately following the public announcement of the applicable fundamental transaction, (C) the underlying price per share used in such calculation shall be the sum of the price per share being offered in cash, if any, plus the value of any non-cash consideration, if any, being offered in such fundamental transaction (as determined by us in good faith) and (D) a remaining option time equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable fundamental transaction and the expiration date of the warrant.

A “fundamental transaction” means a transaction in which (A) we shall, directly or indirectly, including through subsidiaries, affiliates or otherwise, in one or more related transactions, (i) consolidate or merge with or into (whether or not we are the surviving corporation) another person or entity (each, a “subject entity”), or (ii) sell, assign, transfer, convey or otherwise dispose of (in each case, excluding a licensing transaction) all or substantially all of our properties or assets or any of our “significant subsidiaries” (as defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X) to one or more subject entities, or (iii) make, or allow one or more subject entities to make, or allow ourselves to be subject to or have our common stock be subject to or party to one or more subject entities making, a purchase, tender or exchange offer that is accepted by the holders of at least either (x) 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, (y) 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock calculated as if any shares of common stock held by all subject entities making or party to, or affiliated with any subject entities making or party to, such purchase, tender or exchange offer were not outstanding; or (z) such number of shares of

 

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our common stock such that all subject entities making or party to, or affiliated with any subject entity making or party to, such purchase, tender or exchange offer, become collectively the beneficial owners (as defined in Rule 13d-3 under the 1934 Act) of at least 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or (iv) consummate a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off or scheme of arrangement) with one or more subject entities whereby all such subject entities, individually or in the aggregate, acquire, either (x) at least 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, (y) at least 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock calculated as if any shares of our common stock held by all the subject entities making or party to, or affiliated with any subject entity making or party to, such stock purchase agreement or other business combination were not outstanding; or (z) such number of shares of our common stock such that the subject entities become collectively the beneficial owners (as defined in Rule 13d-3 under the 1934 Act) of at least 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or (v) reorganize, recapitalize or reclassify our common stock, (B) we shall, directly or indirectly, including through subsidiaries, affiliates or otherwise, in one or more related transactions, allow any subject entity individually or the subject entities in the aggregate to be or become the “beneficial owner” (as defined in Rule 13d-3 under the 1934 Act), directly or indirectly, whether through acquisition, purchase, assignment, conveyance, tender, tender offer, exchange, reduction in outstanding shares of our common stock, merger, consolidation, business combination, reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off, scheme of arrangement, reorganization, recapitalization or reclassification or otherwise in any manner whatsoever, of either (x) at least 50% of the aggregate ordinary voting power represented by our issued and outstanding common stock, (y) at least 50% of the aggregate ordinary voting power represented by our issued and outstanding common stock not held by all such subject entities as of the date of the warrant calculated as if any shares of our common stock held by all such subject entities were not outstanding, or (z) a percentage of the aggregate ordinary voting power represented by issued and outstanding shares of our common stock or our other equity securities sufficient to allow such subject entities to effect a statutory short form merger or other transaction requiring our other shareholders to surrender their shares of our common stock without approval of our shareholders or (C) we shall, directly or indirectly, including through subsidiaries, affiliates or otherwise, in one or more related transactions, issue or enter into any other instrument or transaction structured in a manner to circumvent, or that circumvents, the intent of this definition in which case this definition shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this definition to the extent necessary to correct this definition or any portion of this definition which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended treatment of such instrument or transaction.

“VWAP” means, for any security as of any date, the dollar volume-weighted average price for such security on the Nasdaq Capital Market (or, if the Nasdaq Capital Market is not the principal trading market for such security, then on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which such security is then traded) during the period beginning at 9:30:01 a.m., New York time, and ending at 4:00:00 p.m., New York time, as reported by Bloomberg L.P. through its “HP” function (set to weighted average) or, if the foregoing does not apply, the dollar volume-weighted average price of such security in the over-the-counter market on the electronic bulletin board for such security during the period beginning at 9:30:01 a.m., New York time, and ending at 4:00:00 p.m., New York time, as reported by Bloomberg L.P., or, if no dollar volume-weighted average price is reported for such security by Bloomberg L.P. for such hours, the average of the highest closing bid price and the lowest closing ask price of any of the market makers for such security as reported in the “pink sheets” by OTC Markets Group Inc. (formerly Pink Sheets LLC). If the VWAP cannot be calculated for such security on such date on any of the foregoing bases, the VWAP of such security on such date shall be the fair market value as mutually determined by us and the holder. All such determinations shall be appropriately adjusted for any stock dividend, stock split, stock combination, recapitalization or other similar transaction during such period.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES TO HOLDERS OF THE SECURITIES

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of the shares of common stock and accompanying warrants or components thereof, which we refer to collectively as the Securities, issued pursuant to this offering, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential tax effects. The effects of other U.S. federal tax laws, such as estate and gift tax laws, and any applicable state, local or foreign tax laws are not discussed. This discussion is based on the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, judicial decisions, and published rulings and administrative pronouncements of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, in each case as in effect as of the date of this offering. These authorities may change or be subject to differing interpretations. Any such change or differing interpretation may be applied retroactively in a manner that could adversely affect a holder of the Securities. We have not sought and do not intend to seek any rulings from the IRS regarding the matters discussed below. There can be no assurance the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position regarding the tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of the Securities.

This discussion is limited to holders that hold the Securities as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances, including the impact of the alternative minimum tax, the unearned income Medicare contribution tax, or any item of gross income with respect to our common stock being taken into account in an “applicable financial statement” (as defined in the Code). In addition, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to particular rules, including, without limitation:

 

   

U.S. expatriates and certain former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

   

persons holding the Securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

   

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

   

brokers, dealers or traders in securities or currencies;

 

   

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

   

partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

   

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

   

persons deemed to sell the Securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;

 

   

“qualified foreign pension funds” as defined in Section 897(l)(2) of the Code and entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds;

 

   

persons who hold or receive the Securities pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation; and

 

   

tax-qualified retirement plans.

If a partnership (or other entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds the Securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding the Securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

 

 

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THIS DISCUSSION IS NOT LEGAL OR TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF THE SECURITIES ARISING UNDER THE U.S. FEDERAL ESTATE OR GIFT TAX LAWS OR UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE INCOME TAX TREATY.

Each share of common stock and accompanying warrant will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as an investment unit consisting of one share of our common stock and a warrant to purchase 0.75 shares of our common stock. In determining their tax basis for the share of common stock and the warrant constituting a unit, holders of Securities should allocate their purchase price for the unit between the share of common stock and the warrant on the basis of their relative fair market values at the time of issuance. The Company does not intend to advise holders of the Securities with respect to this determination, and holders of the Securities are advised to consult their tax and financial advisors with respect to the relative fair market values of the common stock and the warrants for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Tax Considerations Applicable to U.S. Holders

Definition of a U.S. Holder

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of the Securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as any of the following:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and all substantial decisions of which are subject to the control of one or more United States persons (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code), or (2) has made a valid election under applicable Treasury Regulations to continue to be treated as a United States person.

Distributions

As described in the section entitled “Dividend Policy,” we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. However, if we do make distributions of cash or property on our common stock, such distributions will constitute dividends to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Dividends received by a corporate U.S. Holder may be eligible for a dividends received deduction, subject to applicable limitations. Dividends received by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, are generally taxed at the lower applicable capital gains rate provided certain holding period and other requirements are satisfied. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will constitute a return of capital and first be applied against and reduce a U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its common stock, but not below zero.

Any excess will be treated as capital gain and will be treated as described below in the section relating to the sale or disposition of our common stock.

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Common Stock

Upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of the common stock, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to the difference between (i) the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition and (ii) such U.S. Holder’s adjusted

 

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tax basis in the common stock. Such capital gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder’s holding period in such common stock is more than one year at the time of the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally will be subject to reduced rates of U.S. federal income tax. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to certain limitations.

Sale or Other Disposition, Exercise or Expiration of Warrants

Upon the sale or other disposition of a warrant (other than by exercise), a U.S. Holder will generally recognize capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized on the sale or other disposition and the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the warrant. This capital gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder’s holding period in such warrant is more than one year at the time of the sale or other disposition. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to certain limitations.

In general, a U.S. Holder will not be required to recognize income, gain or loss upon exercise of a warrant for its exercise price. A U.S. Holder’s tax basis in a share of common stock received upon exercise of warrants will be equal to the sum of (1) the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the warrants exchanged therefor and (2) the exercise price of such warrants. A U.S. Holder’s holding period in the shares of common stock received upon exercise will commence on the day after such U.S. Holder exercises the warrants. Although there is no direct legal authority as to the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an exercise of a warrant on a cashless basis, we intend to take the position that such exercise will not be taxable, either because the exercise is not a gain realization event or because it qualifies as a tax-free recapitalization. In the former case, the holding period of the shares of common stock received upon exercise of warrants should commence on the day after the warrants are exercised. In the latter case, the holding period of the shares of common stock received upon exercise of warrants would include the holding period of the exercised warrants. However, our position is not binding on the IRS and the IRS may treat a cashless exercise of a warrant as a taxable exchange. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisors as to the consequences of an exercise of a warrant on a cashless basis, including with respect to their holding period and tax basis in the common stock received.

If a warrant expires without being exercised, a U.S. Holder will recognize a capital loss in an amount equal to such holder’s tax basis in the warrant. Such loss will be long-term capital loss if, at the time of the expiration, the U.S. Holder’s holding period in such warrant is more than one year. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to certain limitations.

Constructive Dividends on Warrants

As described in the section entitled “Dividend Policy,” we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. However, if at any time during the period in which a U.S. Holder holds warrants, we were to pay a taxable dividend to our stockholders and, in accordance with the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, the exercise price of the warrants were decreased, that decrease would be deemed to be the payment of a taxable dividend to a U.S. Holder of the warrants to the extent of our earnings and profits, notwithstanding the fact that such holder will not receive a cash payment. If the exercise price is adjusted in certain other circumstances (or in certain circumstances, there is a failure to make adjustments), such adjustments may also result in the deemed payment of a taxable dividend to a U.S. Holder. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the proper treatment of any adjustments to the exercise price of the warrants.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

A U.S. Holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on the common stock or warrants (including constructive dividends) or receives proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of common stock or warrants. Certain U.S. Holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. Holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and such holder:

 

   

fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

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furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

   

is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

   

fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

Tax Considerations Applicable to Non-U.S. Holders

For purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of the Securities that is neither a U.S. Holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Distributions

As described in the section entitled “Dividend Policy,” we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. However, if we do make distributions of cash or property on our common stock, such distributions will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. Amounts not treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes will constitute a return of capital and first be applied against and reduce a Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in our common stock, but not below zero. Any excess will be treated as capital gain and will be treated as described below in the section relating to the sale or disposition of our common stock or warrants. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of the withholding rules discussed below we or the applicable withholding agent may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

Dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder that are not effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% of the gross amount of the dividends (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty).

Non-U.S. Holders will be entitled to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on dividends as a result of either (a) an applicable income tax treaty or (b) the Non-U.S. Holder holding our common stock in connection with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and dividends being effectively connected with that trade or business. To claim such a reduction in or exemption from withholding, the Non-U.S. Holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed (a) IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming an exemption from or reduction of the withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established, or (b) IRS Form W-8ECI stating that the dividends are not subject to withholding tax because they are effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States, as may be applicable. These certifications must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of dividends and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. Holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS.

If dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder are effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), then, although exempt from U.S. federal withholding tax (provided the Non-U.S. Holder provides appropriate

 

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certification, as described above), the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on such dividends on a net income basis at the regular graduated U.S. federal income tax rates. In addition, a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on its effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year that are attributable to such dividends, as adjusted for certain items. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

Exercise of Warrants

A non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the exercise of warrants into shares of common stock. However, if a cashless exercise of warrants results in a taxable exchange, as described in “— Tax Considerations Applicable to U.S. Holders — Sale or Other Disposition, Exercise or Expiration of Warrants,” the rules described below under “Sale or Other Disposition of Common Stock or Warrants” would apply.

Sale or Other Disposition of Common Stock or Warrants

Subject to the discussion below on backup withholding, a Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale or other disposition of our common stock or warrants unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable);

 

   

the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met; or

 

   

our common stock or warrants constitute U.S. real property interests, or USRPIs, by reason of our status as a U.S. real property holding corporation, or USRPHC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Gain described in the first bullet point above will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular graduated U.S. federal income tax rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a foreign corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

A Non-U.S. Holder described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on any gain derived from the disposition, which may be offset by certain U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States) provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

With respect to the third bullet point above, we believe we are not currently and do not anticipate becoming a USRPHC. Because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our USRPIs relative to the fair market value of our other business assets and our non-U.S. real property interests, however, there can be no assurance we currently are not a USRPHC or will not become one in the future. Even if we are or were to become a USRPHC, (i) gain arising from the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock by a Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax if our common stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, and such Non-U.S. Holder owned, actually and constructively, 5% or less of our common stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period and (ii) gain arising from the sale or other taxable disposition by a Non-U.S. Holder of a warrant generally will

 

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not be subject to U.S. federal income tax if our common stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, and on the Non-U.S. Holder’s acquisition date for such warrants, the warrants held by such Non-U.S. Holder had a fair market value equal to or less than the fair market value on that date of 5% of our common stock by such Non-U.S. Holder.

Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding potentially applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Constructive Dividends on Warrants

As described in the section entitled “Dividend Policy,” we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. However, if at any time during the period in which a Non-U.S. Holder holds warrants we were to pay a taxable dividend to our stockholders and, in accordance with the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, the exercise price of the warrants were decreased, that decrease would be deemed to be the payment of a taxable dividend to a Non-U.S. Holder to the extent of our earnings and profits, notwithstanding the fact that such holder will not receive a cash payment. If the exercise price is adjusted in certain other circumstances (or in certain circumstances, there is a failure to make adjustments), such adjustments may also result in the deemed payment of a taxable dividend to a Non-U.S. Holder. Any resulting withholding tax attributable to deemed dividends may be collected from other amounts payable or distributable to the Non-U.S. Holder. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the proper treatment of any adjustments to the warrants.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

Subject to the discussion below on foreign accounts, a Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to backup withholding with respect to distributions on our common stock or warrants we make to the Non-U.S. Holder, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know such holder is a United States person and the holder certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by providing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or other applicable certification. However, information returns generally will be filed with the IRS in connection with any distributions (including deemed distributions) made on our common stock or warrants to the Non-U.S. Holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. Copies of these information returns may also be made available under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.

Information reporting and backup withholding may apply to the proceeds of a sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock or warrants within the United States, and information reporting may (although backup withholding generally will not) apply to the proceeds of a sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock or warrants outside the United States conducted through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries, in each case, unless the beneficial owner certifies under penalty of perjury that it is a Non-U.S. Holder on IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E, or other applicable form (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that the beneficial owner is a United States person) or such owner otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of our common stock or warrants conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends (including deemed dividends) paid on our common stock or

 

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warrants, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock or warrants paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends (including deemed dividends) paid on our common stock or warrants. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we or the applicable withholding agent may treat the entire distribution as a dividend. While, beginning on January 1, 2019, withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock or warrants, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of these withholding provisions.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, dated May 21, 2020, among us, Mizuho Securities USA LLC and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., as joint book-running managers and representatives of the underwriters named below, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the shares of common stock and accompanying warrants shown opposite its name below:

 

Underwriter

   Number of
Shares
     Number of
Accompanying
Warrants
 

Mizuho Securities USA LLC

     5,191,008        3,893,256  

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

     5,191,008        3,893,256  

Maxim Group LLC

     1,061,800        796,350  

Janney Montgomery Scott LLC

     353,936        265,452  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     11,797,752        8,848,314  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the several underwriters are subject to certain conditions precedent such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions and approval of certain legal matters by their counsel. The underwriting agreement provides that the underwriters will purchase all of the shares of common stock and accompanying warrants if any of them are purchased. We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters and certain of their controlling persons against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to contribute to payments that the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

The underwriters are offering the shares of common stock and accompanying warrants subject to their acceptance of the shares of common stock and accompanying warrants from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.

Commission and Expenses

The underwriters have advised us that they propose to offer the shares of common stock and accompanying warrants to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and to certain dealers, which may include the underwriters, at that price less a concession not in excess of $0.1602 per share of common stock and accompanying warrant. After the initial offering, the representatives may change the offering price and other selling terms.

The following table shows the public offering price, the underwriting discounts and commissions that we are to pay the underwriters and the proceeds, before expenses, to us in connection with this offering.

 

     Per Share and
Accompanying
Warrant
     Total  

Public offering price

   $ 4.45      $ 52,499,996.40  

Underwriting discounts and commissions

   $ 0.267      $ 3,149,999.79  

Proceeds to us, before expenses

   $ 4.183      $ 49,349,996.61  

We estimate expenses payable by us in connection with this offering, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions referred to above, will be approximately $515,000, which includes a reimbursement of the underwriters for up to $75,000 of certain of their counsels’ fees and expenses. The reimbursed fee is deemed underwriting compensation for this offering by FINRA.

 

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Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “CFRX.”    There is no established trading market for the warrants and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to list the warrants on any securities exchange or automated quotation system.

No Sales of Similar Securities

We and our directors and executive officers are subject to lock-up agreements that prohibit us and them from offering for sale, pledging, announcing the intention to sell, selling, contracting to sell, selling any option or contract to purchase, purchasing any option or contract to sell, granting any option, right or warrant to purchase, making any short sale, otherwise transferring or disposing of any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into, exercisable or exchangeable for or that represent the right to receive our common stock, entering into any swap or other agreement that transfers any of the economic consequences of ownership of our common stock, making any demand for or exercising any right with respect to the registration of our common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock or publicly disclosing the intention to do any of the foregoing for a period of at least 90 days following the date of this prospectus supplement without the prior written consent of the representatives.

The lock-up agreement applicable to us provides exceptions for the issuance of our securities (i) to our directors, officers, employees and consultants pursuant to employee benefit plans, equity incentive plans or other employee compensation plans existing on the date hereof and as described in this prospectus or otherwise approved by our stockholders, (ii) pursuant to the exercise or conversion of any options, warrants, rights or convertible securities outstanding on the date hereof, (iii) the issuance of options or other equity awards to our consultants in the ordinary course of business, (iv) in connection with a joint venture or collaboration or other strategic or commercial relationship existing prior to, on or following the date of this prospectus supplement, provided that such issuance is not in excess of 5% of our total outstanding common stock on the date of this prospectus supplement and (v) issued to Pfizer Inc. or any affiliate thereof in connection with one or more private placements of shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase shares of our common stock.

The lock-up agreement applicable to our directors and executive officers provides exceptions for transfers of our securities (i) as a bona fide gift or gifts, (ii) to any trust for the direct or indirect benefit of such director or officer or his immediate family, (iii) by testate succession or intestate succession, (iv) in connection with the “net” or “cashless” exercise or settlement of restricted stock units or other equity awards acquired prior to the date hereof (including any transfer for the payment of taxes due as a result of such vesting or exercise whether by means of a “net settlement” or otherwise), subject to certain requirements in each case, (v) transactions relating to securities acquired in open market transactions after completion of this offering and (vi) transfers in connection with a bona fide third party tender offer, merger, consolidation or other similar transaction, as well as certain other exceptions.

Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions

The underwriters may make a market in the common stock as permitted by applicable laws and regulations. However, the underwriters are not obligated to do so, and the underwriters may discontinue any market-making activities at any time without notice in their sole discretion. Accordingly, no assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for the common stock, that you will be able to sell any of the common stock held by you at a particular time or that the prices that you receive when you sell will be favorable.

The underwriters have advised us that they, pursuant to Regulation M under the Exchange Act, may engage in short sale transactions, stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions or the imposition of penalty bids in connection with this offering. These activities may have the effect of stabilizing or maintaining the market price of the common stock at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market.

A stabilizing bid is a bid for the purchase of shares of common stock on behalf of the underwriters for the purpose of fixing or maintaining the price of the common stock. A syndicate covering transaction is the bid for or

 

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the purchase of shares of common stock on behalf of the underwriters to reduce a short position incurred by the underwriters in connection with the offering. Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriters’ purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. A penalty bid is an arrangement permitting the underwriters to reclaim the selling concession otherwise accruing to a syndicate member in connection with the offering if the securities originally sold by such syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction and therefore have not been effectively placed by such syndicate member.

Neither we, nor any of the underwriters, make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. The underwriters are not obligated to engage in these activities and, if commenced, may end any of these activities at any time.

Passive Market Making

The underwriters may also engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M during a period before the commencement of offers or sales of our securities in this offering and extending through the completion of distribution. A passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid of that security. However, if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, that bid must then be lowered when specified purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may cause the price of our common stock to be higher than the price that otherwise would exist in the open market in the absence of those transactions. The underwriters are not required to engage in passive market making and, if commenced, may end passive market making activities at any time.

Electronic Distribution

A prospectus supplement in electronic format may be made available by e-mail or on the web sites or through online services maintained by one or more of the underwriters, selling group members (if any) or their affiliates. The underwriters may agree with us to allocate a specific number of our securities for sale to online brokerage account holders. Any such allocation for online distributions will be made by the underwriters on the same basis as other allocations. Other than the prospectus in electronic format, the information on the underwriters’ web sites and any information contained in any other web site maintained by any of the underwriters is not part of this prospectus supplement, has not been approved and/or endorsed by us or the underwriters and should not be relied upon by investors.

Other Activities and Relationships

The underwriters and certain of their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in a wide range of activities for their own accounts and the accounts of customers, which may include, among other things, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, merchant banking, equity and fixed income sales, trading and research, derivatives, foreign exchange, futures, asset management, custody, clearance and securities lending. The underwriters and certain of their affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various investment banking and financial advisory services for us and our affiliates, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses.

In addition, in the ordinary course of its business, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may, directly or indirectly, hold long or short positions, trade and otherwise conduct such activities in or with respect to debt or equity securities and/or bank debt of, and/or derivative products. Such investment and securities activities may involve our securities and instruments. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may also

 

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make investment recommendations or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Selling Restrictions

European Economic Area and the United Kingdom

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area and the United Kingdom (each, a “Relevant State”), no securities have been offered or will be offered pursuant to the offering to the public in that Relevant State prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the securities which has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant States or, where appropriate, approved in another Relevant States and notified to the competent authority in that Relevant State, all in accordance with the Prospectus Regulation, except that offers of the securities may be made to the public in that Relevant State at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Regulation:

(a) to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Regulation;

(b) to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives; or

(c) in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation,

provided that no such offer of securities shall require us or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Regulation or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the Prospectus Regulation and each person who initially acquires any securities or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed to and with each of the underwriters and us that it is a “qualified investor” as defined in the Prospectus Regulation.

In the case of any securities being offered to a financial intermediary as that term is used in Article 5 of the Prospectus Regulation, each such financial intermediary will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed that the securities acquired by it in the offer have not been acquired on a nondiscretionary basis on behalf of, nor have they been acquired with a view to their offer or resale to, persons in circumstances which may give rise to an offer of any securities to the public other than their offer or resale in a Relevant State to qualified investors as so defined or in circumstances in which the prior consent of the underwriters has been obtained to each such proposed offer or resale.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer of securities to the public” in relation to any securities in any Relevant State means the communication in any form and by means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase securities, and the expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 (as amended).

References to the Prospectus Regulation includes, in relation to the United Kingdom, the Prospectus Regulation as it forms part of United Kingdom domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018.

This selling restriction is in addition to any other selling restrictions set out below.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, this prospectus supplement is only addressed to and directed at qualified investors who are (i) investment professionals falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000

 

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(Financial Promotion) Order 2005 (the Order); or (ii) high net worth entities and other persons to whom it may lawfully be communicated, falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”). Any investment or investment activity to which this prospectus supplement relates is available only to relevant persons and will only be engaged with relevant persons. Any person who is not a relevant person should not act or relay on this prospectus supplement or any of its contents.

Switzerland

The securities may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange, or SIX, or on any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This document has been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the securities or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, the Company or the securities have been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this document will not be filed with, and the offer of securities will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market.

Canada

The securities may be sold in Canada only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions, and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the securities must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

Hong Kong

The securities may not be offered or sold in Hong Kong by means of any document other than (i) in circumstances which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, or which do not constitute an invitation to the public within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or Securities and Futures Ordinance, or (ii) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder, or (iii) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, and no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the securities may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which

 

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are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to securities which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” in Hong Kong as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder.

Singapore

This prospectus supplement has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the securities may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor (as defined under Section 4A of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore (the “SFA”)) under Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to conditions set forth in the SFA.

Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor, the securities (as defined in Section 239(1) of the SFA) of that corporation shall not be transferable for 6 months after that corporation has acquired the securities under Section 275 of the SFA except: (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA), (ii) where such transfer arises from an offer in that corporation’s securities pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, (iii) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer, (iv) where the transfer is by operation of law, (v) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA, or (vi) as specified in Regulation 32 of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Shares and Debentures) Regulations 2005 of Singapore, or Regulation 32.

Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an accredited investor, the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferable for 6 months after that trust has acquired the securities under Section 275 of the SFA except: (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA), (ii) where such transfer arises from an offer that is made on terms that such rights or interest are acquired at a consideration of not less than S$200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction (whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or other assets), (iii) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer, (iv) where the transfer is by operation of law, (v) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA, or (vi) as specified in Regulation 32.

Singapore SFA Product Classification—In connection with Section 309B of the SFA and the CMP Regulations 2018, unless otherwise specified before an offer of securities, the company has determined, and hereby notifies all relevant persons (as defined in Section 309A(1) of the SFA), that the securities are “prescribed capital markets products” (as defined in the CMP Regulations 2018) and Excluded Investment Products (as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).

Japan

The securities have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (Act No. 25 of 1948, as amended), or the FIEA. The securities may not be offered or sold, directly or

 

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indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of any resident of Japan (including any person resident in Japan or any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan) or to others for reoffering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of any resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the FIEA and otherwise in compliance with any relevant laws and regulations of Japan.

Israel

In the State of Israel this prospectus supplement shall not be regarded as an offer to the public to purchase securities under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, which requires a prospectus to be published and authorized by the Israel Securities Authority, if it complies with certain provisions of Section 15 of the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, including, inter alia, if: (i) the offer is made, distributed or directed to not more than 35 investors, subject to certain conditions (the “Addressed Investors”); or (ii) the offer is made, distributed or directed to certain qualified investors defined in the First Addendum of the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, subject to certain conditions (the “Qualified Investors”). The Qualified Investors shall not be taken into account in the count of the Addressed Investors and may be offered to purchase securities in addition to the 35 Addressed Investors. The Company has not and will not take any action that would require it to publish a prospectus in accordance with and subject to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968. The Company and the underwriters have not and will not distribute this prospectus supplement or make, distribute or direct an offer to subscribe for our securities to any person within the State of Israel, other than to Qualified Investors and up to 35 Addressed Investors.

Qualified Investors may have to submit written evidence that they meet the definitions set out in of the First Addendum to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968. In particular, we may request, as a condition to be offered securities, that Qualified Investors will each represent, warrant and certify to us and/or to anyone acting on our behalf: (i) that it is an investor falling within one of the categories listed in the First Addendum to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968; (ii) which of the categories listed in the First Addendum to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968 regarding Qualified Investors is applicable to it; (iii) that it will abide by all provisions set forth in the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968 and the regulations promulgated thereunder in connection with the offer to be issued securities; (iv) that the securities that it will be issued are, subject to exemptions available under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968: (a) for its own account; (b) for investment purposes only; and (c) not issued with a view to resale within the State of Israel, other than in accordance with the provisions of the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968; and (v) that it is willing to provide further evidence of its Qualified Investor status. Addressed Investors may have to submit written evidence in respect of their identity and may have to sign and submit a declaration containing, inter alia, the Addressed Investor’s name, address and passport number or Israeli identification number.

Australia

No placement document, prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document has been lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”), in relation to the offering. This prospectus does not constitute a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act 2001 (the “Corporations Act”), and does not purport to include the information required for a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act.

Any offer in Australia of the securities may only be made to persons (the “Exempt Investors”) who are “sophisticated investors” (within the meaning of section 708(8) of the Corporations Act), “professional investors” (within the meaning of section 708(11) of the Corporations Act) or otherwise pursuant to one or more exemptions contained in section 708 of the Corporations Act so that it is lawful to offer the securities without disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act.

 

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The securities applied for by Exempt Investors in Australia must not be offered for sale in Australia in the period of 12 months after the date of allotment under the offering, except in circumstances where disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act would not be required pursuant to an exemption under section 708 of the Corporations Act or otherwise or where the offer is pursuant to a disclosure document which complies with Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act. Any person acquiring securities must observe such Australian on-sale restrictions.

This prospectus contains general information only and does not take account of the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. It does not contain any securities recommendations or financial product advice. Before making an investment decision, investors need to consider whether the information in this prospectus is appropriate to their needs, objectives and circumstances, and, if necessary, seek expert advice on those matters.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP. Goodwin Procter LLP is counsel to the underwriters in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as set forth in their report thereon which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

Our web site address is www.contrafect.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.

We incorporate by reference the following information or documents that we have filed with the SEC:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 18, 2020.

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 15, 2020.

 

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Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 4, 2020, February 21, 2020, February 24, 2020 and May 13, 2020.

 

   

Our annual Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A relating to our annual meeting of stockholders, filed on March 30, 2020 (with respect to those portions incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019).

 

   

The description of our Common Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 28, 2014, and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

We incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus all reports and other documents we subsequently file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, between the date of this prospectus supplement and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus supplement. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed above or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K. The reports and documents specifically listed above or filed in the future (excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC) are deemed to be part of this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

ContraFect Corporation

28 Wells Avenue, Third Floor

Yonkers, New York 10701

(914) 207-2300

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

ContraFect Corporation

$100,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

We may offer and sell up to $100,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “CFRX.” On November 29, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $2.37 per share.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is December 13, 2018.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED SHARE DIVIDENDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     22  

GLOBAL SECURITIES

     23  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     27  

LEGAL MATTERS

     29  

EXPERTS

     29  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $100,000,000 as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

We have not, and any underwriter has not, authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

When we refer to “ContraFect,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean ContraFect Corporation, unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of the applicable series of securities.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Information filed with the SEC by us can be inspected and copied at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also obtain copies of this information by mail from the Public Reference Room of the SEC at prescribed rates. Further information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

Our web site address is http://www.contrafect.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. or through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on March 15, 2018.

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018 and September 30, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 10, 2018, August 9, 2018 and November 8, 2018, respectively.

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 9, 2018, May 30, 2018 and July 31, 2018.

 

   

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on March 21, 2018.

 

   

The description of our Common Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 28, 2014, and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

 

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All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

ContraFect Corporation

28 Wells Avenue, Third Floor

Yonkers, New York 10701

(914) 207-2300

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on protein and antibody therapeutic products for life-threatening infectious diseases, particularly those treated in hospital-based settings. We intend to address multi-drug resistant infections using our therapeutic product candidates from our lysin and monoclonal antibody platforms to target conserved regions of either bacteria or viruses. Our most advanced product candidate is CF-301 (exebacase), a lysin which is being studied as a treatment of Staph aureus bacteremia, including endocarditis in a Phase 2 clinical trial. We are also focused on expanding our gram-negative lysin pipeline through the discovery and development of lysins that target antibiotic-resistant gram-negative pathogens which are considered to be urgent or serious threats to global health by the U.S. Center for Disease Control or critical priorities by the World Health Organization. Beyond the lysin programs, we are exploring therapies using other phage-derived lytic agents, anti-microbial peptides and monoclonal antibodies.

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in March 2008. Our principal executive offices are located at 28 Wells Avenue, 3rd Floor, Yonkers, NY 10701, and our telephone number is (914) 207-2300. Our website address is www.contrafect.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our securities. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “CFRX”.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED SHARE DIVIDENDS

The following table sets forth the historical ratios of earnings to fixed charges and preferred share dividends for ContraFect for the periods indicated.

 

     Nine Months Ended
September 30, 2018
     Years Ended December 31,
       2017        2016        2015        2014        2013  

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

     N/A      N/A    N/A    N/A    N/A    N/A

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges and preferred share dividends

     N/A      N/A    N/A    N/A    N/A    N/A

For purposes of calculating the ratio above, earnings consist of income before income taxes plus fixed charges. Fixed charges include interest expense, non-cash interest expense and other, and an estimate of the interest expense within rental expense.

We did not record earnings for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 or any of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013. Accordingly, our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges and preferred stock dividends in such periods and we are unable to disclose a ratio of earnings to fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for such periods. The dollar amount of the deficiency in earnings available for fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 was approximately $43,620,000, $15,518,000, $28,538,000, $25,121,000, $34,618,000 and $23,621,000, respectively.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, which has been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

Our authorized capital stock consists of:

 

   

200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share; and

 

   

25,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

Common Stock

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “CFRX.”

Voting Rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Subject to the supermajority votes for some matters, other matters shall be decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter. Our certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws also provide that our directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% in voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon. Subject to the rights of holder of any series of Preferred Stock, any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% in voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon is required to amend or repeal, or to adopt any provision inconsistent with, several of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation. See below under “—Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws—Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation.”

Rights Upon Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock.

Other Rights. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Dividend

Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. We currently expect to retain all future earnings, if any, for use in the development, operation and expansion of our business. Any determination to pay cash dividends in the future will depend upon, among other things, our results of operations, plans for expansion, tax considerations, available net profits and reserves, limitations under law, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors that our board of directors considers to be relevant.

 

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Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock.

Options

As of September 30, 2018, options to purchase an aggregate of 7,248,198 shares of our common stock were outstanding under our 2014 equity compensation plan.

Warrants

Follow-On Offerings. In July 2016, in connection with an underwritten follow-on offering, we issued warrants to purchase 14,000,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $3.00 per share, which expire on July 27, 2021. As of September 30, 2018, there were an aggregate of 14,000,000 shares of common stock underlying these warrants. In July 2017, in connection with an underwritten follow-on offering, we issued warrants to purchase 16,000,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $1.55 per share, which expire on July 25, 2022. As of September 30, 2018, there were an aggregate of 15,996,450 shares of common stock underlying these warrants.

PIPE Warrants. In June 2015, in connection with a private placement of securities to institutional investors, the placement agents received warrants to purchase shares of common stock at an exercise price of $4.65 per share, which expire on June 11, 2020. As of September 30, 2018, there were an aggregate of 189,126 shares of common stock underlying these warrants.

IPO Warrant. In August 2014, we closed our initial public offering. In connection with the initial public offering, The Maxim Group, LLC received a warrant to purchase 206,410 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $7.50 per share, which expires on July 28, 2019. As of September 30, 2018, there were an aggregate of 206,410 shares of common stock underlying these warrants.

Note Warrants. We issued approximately $15.0 million in aggregate principal amount of our 8.00% Convertible Notes due May 31, 2015 from June 2013 through June 2014. Each purchaser of the convertible notes received a warrant. As of September 30, 2018, there were 692,858 shares of common stock underlying these warrants at an exercise price of $3.00 per share, each of which expires five years from its respective date of issuance.

Other Warrants. In addition to the foregoing, as of September 30, 2018, we had an aggregate of 180,338 shares of common stock underlying outstanding warrants at a weighted average exercise price of $5.66 per share.

Registration Rights

The shares of common stock underlying the warrants issued in connection with our IPO are currently registered under a registration statement that has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission, pursuant to registration rights granted to the holders in accordance with the terms of the warrants.

 

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Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Some provisions of Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws could make the following transactions more difficult: an acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; an acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or the removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions which provide for payment of a premium over the market price for our shares.

Undesignated Preferred Stock. The ability of our board of directors, without action by the stockholders, to issue up to 25,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences as designated by our board of directors could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deferring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.

Stockholder Meetings. Our bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairman of the board, the chief executive officer, or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals. Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting will only be able to consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent. Our certificate of incorporation eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.

Removal of Directors. Our certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that our directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% in voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon. Subject to the rights of holder of any series of Preferred Stock, any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office.

Stockholders Not Entitled to Cumulative Voting. Our certificate of incorporation does not permit stockholders to cumulate their votes in the election of directors. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they choose, other than any directors that holders of our preferred stock may be entitled to elect.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute. We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Under Section 203, we would generally be prohibited from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the time that this stockholder became an interested stockholder unless:

 

   

prior to this time, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation

 

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outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to such time, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Under Section 203, a “business combination” includes:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

   

any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder, subject to limited exceptions;

 

   

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as an entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Choice of Forum. Our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative form, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware or other state courts of the State of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by, or other wrongdoing by, any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or our stockholders, creditors or other constituents; (3) any action arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; (4) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (5) any action asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our amended and restated bylaws also provide, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this choice of forum provision. It is possible that a court of law could rule that the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated bylaws is inapplicable or unenforceable if it is challenged in a proceeding or otherwise.

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws. The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock and the provision prohibiting cumulative voting, would require approval by holders of at least 75% in voting power of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote thereon.

The provisions of Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in the composition of our board and management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

As used in this section only, “ContraFect,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to ContraFect Corporation, excluding our subsidiaries, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. (Section 2.2) The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. (Section 2.1) We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

   

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

   

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

 

   

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

   

the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

 

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the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

   

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

   

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

   

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

   

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;

 

   

if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

   

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

 

   

whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees. (Section 2.2)

 

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We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. (Section 2.4) No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange. (Section 2.7)

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities. (Article IV)

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

   

we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than ContraFect) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and

 

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immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us. (Section 5.1)

Events of Default

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

   

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

   

default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;

 

   

default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or ContraFect and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

 

   

certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of ContraFect;

 

   

any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement. (Section 6.1)

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. (Section 6.1) The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof. (Section 6.1)

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. (Section 6.2) We refer you to the prospectus

 

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supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. (Section 7.1(e)) Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series. (Section 6.12)

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

   

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. (Section 6.7)

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment. (Section 6.8)

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. (Section 4.3) If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities. (Section 7.5)

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

   

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

 

   

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

   

to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

 

   

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

 

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to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

 

   

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

   

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act. (Section 9.1)

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

   

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

 

   

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

 

   

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

   

make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or

 

   

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security. (Section 9.3)

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. (Section 9.2) The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration. (Section 6.13)

 

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Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred. (Section 8.3)

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

   

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

 

   

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

The conditions include:

 

   

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred. (Section 8.4)

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders

None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or stockholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities.

 

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However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum. (Section 10.10)

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or of debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the designation, stated value and terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase preferred stock;

 

   

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

 

   

United States Federal income tax consequences applicable to the warrants; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

 

   

to vote, consent or receive dividends;

 

   

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

exercise any rights as stockholders of ContraFect.

Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of preferred stock or common stock at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

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A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holder of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common stock or preferred stock, if any.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

   

the title of the series of units;

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

   

a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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GLOBAL SECURITIES

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

DTC has advised us that it is:

 

   

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

   

a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

   

a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

 

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So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless if otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

 

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As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

 

   

DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

 

   

we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or

 

   

an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

Euroclear and Clearstream

If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking S.A., which we refer to as “Clearstream,” or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, which we refer to as “Euroclear,” either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on DTC’s books.

Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.

Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on one hand, and other participants in DTC, on the other hand, are also subject to DTC’s rules and procedures.

Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.

Cross-market transfers between participants in DTC, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with the DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.

 

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Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

Other

The information in this section of this prospectus concerning DTC, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.

Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.

Any common stock will be listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment

 

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option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Latham & Watkins LLP will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of ContraFect Corporation. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of ContraFect Corporation appearing in ContraFect Corporation’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2017, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements are, and audited financial statements to be included in subsequently filed documents will be, incorporated herein in reliance upon the report of Ernst & Young LLP pertaining to such financial statements, given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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11,797,752 Shares of Common Stock

Warrants to Purchase up to 8,848,314 Shares of Common Stock

 

LOGO

 

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

 

Mizuho Securities

Cantor

Maxim Group LLC

Janney Montgomery Scott

 

 

May 21, 2020